Nanofabrication & Nanomaterials
Dip Pen Nanolithography® (DPN®) is adept at writing a wide range of feature sizes to existing surfaces in “bottom-up” nanofabrication applications or delivering etch resists in “top-down” lithography applications. Since DPN is a maskless technique that does not require a clean room or master stamp, new patterns can be designed, deposited, and characterized at a fraction of the cost and time investment required for mask-based lithography. DPN techniques have proven to be especially useful for nanoscale “rapid prototyping” situations - when a range of geometries must be precisely and systematically varied in order to discover the optimum design (for metamaterials, diffraction gratings, etc.) or the desired response (cell polarization, directed self-assembly of CNTs, etc).
Problems, Challenges & Un-Meet Needs
Conventional nanofabrication techniques typically involve multiple steps and require different instruments for lithography, etching, deposition and characterization phases. As a result, some nanofabrication processes are prohibitively costly or difficult to implement using traditional techniques and equipment. In addition, the patterning of nano and microscale structures using conventional mask-based lithography techniques consumes significant time and money with each “master” pattern created and often requires access to a clean room. An important feature of DPN is its ability to register to an existing nanopattern or nanostructure and create complex multi-component materials; this capability is often difficult and costly for traditional micro and nanoscale techniques to achieve.
Benefits of DPN
Benefits of using DPN for “bottom-up” and “top-down” lithography applications include:
DPN-based “bottom-up” and “top-down” patterning have proven to be valuable fabrication techniques for many markets (including energy, catalysis, advanced materials, and environmental science) in multiple applications, including:
Metamaterial Structure Fabrication Using DPN
Multiscale Directed Assembly of Polymer Blends Using Chemically Functionalized Nanoscale-Patterned Templates, Small 2009, 5, No. 24, 2788–2791, Jason Chiota, John Shearer, Ming Wei, Carol Barry, and Joey Mead
Superparamagnetic Sub-5 nm Fe@C Nanoparticles: Isolation, Structure,Magnetic Properties, and Directed Assembly, NanoLetters 2008 Vol. 8, No. 11, 3761-3765, Yuhuang Wang, Wei Wei, Daniel Maspoch, Jinsong Wu,Vinayak P. Dravid, and Chad A. Mirkin
Carbon Nanotube Monolayer Patterns for Directed Growth of Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Advanced Materials, 2007, 19, 2530-2534, Sung Young Park, Sun Young Park, Seon Namgung, Byeongju Kim, Jiwoon Im, Ji Youn Kim, Kyung Sun, Kyu Back Lee, Jwa-Min Nam, Yongdoo Park, and Seunghun Hong, Seoul National University
Controllable Patterning and CVD Growth of Isolated Carbon Nanotubes with Direct Parallel Writing of Catalyst Using Dip-Pen Nanolithography, Small, 2009, 5, 2523-2527, Irma Kuljanishvili, Dmitriy A. Dikin, Sergey Rozok, Scott Mayle, and Venkat Chandrasekhar
Immobilization of motile bacterial cells via dip-pen nanolithography, Nanotechnology 21 (2010) 235105, Dorjderem Nyamjav, Sergey Rozhok and Richard C Holz, Loyola University-Chicago